A Dissertation for the Higher International Diploma in Flower Remedies (HIDip)
Anne Whitehouse PhD
The link between our mental and emotional well-being, and our physical health, is now firmly established, even in the world of conventional medicine – but how far does this link truly go? My experience of the debilitating M.E. condition has shown that the root cause is stress: chronic stress from various sources which exhausts the body and locks it into a permanent fight or flight mode. Logic would therefore dictate that the removal of sources of stress will allow the body to switch out of its panic mode into a normal mode of operation. Then by re-balancing and re-charging the body’s subtle energy systems, this should give the body all it needs to return to health. Unfortunately, it is not all that simple. Invariably, there is a profoundly powerful component of the condition which is linked to imbalances in emotional and mental energies, possibly completely unknown to the sufferer, which prevents the body returning to its former well-being, even when all other factors having been corrected.This study will attempt to demonstrate that, with reference to preliminary results from two case studies, the key to recovery may be the correction of these mental and emotional energy patterns by means of the Bach Flower Remedies and the related Karmic Essences[i]. Before these are corrected, recovery can only occur to a limited state. However, once these deep-seated issues are corrected, and the negative emotional and mental issues are cleared, even previously untreatable conditions such as M.E. can and will improve.
M.E.: The Body’s Last Resort
M.E., or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, is a debilitating condition with severe physical symptoms which literally destroy lives. It has no conventional treatment whatsoever, and sufferers have no idea of when or even if they will recover. When a person is diagnosed with M.E. all conventional medical tests are normal, yet the appalling symptoms are very real. Why should a body impose this upon itself? What is it trying to gain by doing this? The answer to this is surprisingly simple. The body has stopped; it prevents the person from doing whatever it was they were doing. It is sending a clear message, in the only way it can, that the current state is untenable. The environment in which the person is trying to function is fundamentally incompatible with them, and the amount of mental and emotional stress this produces is too much.
We then have the second stage. The medical profession can give neither conventional treatment nor timescale for recovery. The natural reaction for the sufferer is to panic as they feel their life draining away. This puts further stress on the body’s systems, further entrenching them into the fight or flight mode of operation, and the situation spirals out of control.
Peeling Away the Layers of Stress
Holistic medicine does not look at the symptoms or test results produced by a medical condition, but instead attempts to find the root of the problem. The logical place for the holistic practitioner to start is therefore to look at the factors which caused the person’s health to fail, and remove or correct those. These factors are the different sources of stress to which the person was subjected prior to their illness. What one person perceives as stress may be very different to what the next person perceives as stress. However, there are certain factors which must be checked in all cases.
Firstly, the M.E. sufferer’s physical environment needs to be checked for Geopathic Stress lines. Natural vibrations emanate from the Earth at a frequency of 8Hz; this is also known as the Schumann Resonance. This frequency is needed for us to remain healthy. Unfortunately, certain rock formations or underground water increase the frequency of these vibrations to an unhealthy level, termed Geopathic Stress. The effect of Geopathic Stress is to undermine the immune system of people and this has been linked to conditions such as M.E., cancer, cot death . (While Geopathic Stress does not cause the health problems per se, it imposes a stress load on the exposed person’s immune system which makes them more vulnerable to other problems.) The lines of stress can be identified by means of dowsing. It is particularly important that a line of Geopathic Stress does not pass through the patient’s chair or bed where they spend a lot of their time.
The best solution to Geopathic Stress is to neutralise it within the house using an electrical device. If this is not possible, then strategically placed crystals can help neutralise it. At the very least, furniture should be re-arranged to minimise M.E. sufferer’s exposure to the stress. The Geopathic Stress also needs to be cleared from the person. This can be done using a stress neutralising device or using crystals such as smoky quartz and brown jasper . Energy healing, such as Reiki or Chi Gung, will also help drive the stress out of the patient’s body.
Our environment, diet, and lifestyle result in many toxins being taken into the body. In particular, if a person is run-down, their body may not be able to metabolise substances such as medications properly. The result is that the level of toxins within the body builds up, effectively poisoning them and putting more strain on their immune systems. A priority for M.E. sufferers is therefore to reduce the toxic load their body is coping with.
This can be attacked from various directions. Firstly, a detox diet should be followed if at all possible. Essentially this means eliminating any processed food, refined carbohydrates and sugars, increasing the amount of organic food, fresh fruit and vegetables, and minimising the amount of red meat. At the same time, antioxidant supplements and immune stimulating supplements, such as beta-glucan, are advisable. However, this is not enough; it is also necessary to perform food sensitivity tests to eliminate any supposedly innocuous substance to which they are in fact sensitive. Often people develop sensitivities to the foods they habitually eat: foods which nobody would think would cause problems. Such testing can be done by kinesiology muscle testing, ‘Vega’ testing or Medical Radiesthesia which I shall explain later; the latter being my personal preference. This will give the sufferer a good idea of foods which are going to further undermine their strength. By avoiding these foods, this removes another load from their immune system.
Taking natural supplements such as turmeric and milk-thistle will also be highly beneficial in helping the body cleanse itself of toxins. Another way of removing toxins from the body is to take frequent baths with aromatherapy oils. I have found the oils of Rosemary and Grapefruit to be particularly beneficial for M.E. sufferers. Not only do they help the body detoxify, but they also have an energising and uplifting effect on the mind. A caveat to this is that the Grapefruit essential oil can be too harsh for people with very sensitive skin. In addition to this, it is helpful to take frequent saunas, as this removes toxins from the body tissues with sweat.
The symptoms experienced by the sufferer during the initial few weeks of detoxification can be quite intense and unpleasant. It is especially important to reassure the person that this is in fact an excellent sign, showing that the process is working, and indeed that there is a significant amount of toxin which is being removed from their body. The detoxification is not going to occur over night. The second case study subject cited here found it necessary to follow the strict detoxification programme for about eight months before significant improvements in strength were observed. However, the extreme detoxification symptoms abated after the first couple of months. Following such a regime for this length of time is not easy, and requires significant effort on the part of the patient. This is an essential component of the recovery process though and as such cannot be omitted.
Stresses resulting from work and home environments are probably what most people would immediately associate with the word stress. The use of the Bach Flower Remedies  can significantly reduce the impact of such stresses on the sufferer. In many cases, the onset of the M.E. condition itself necessitates the removal of the person from high stress environments, by for example making them leave work or school. It is well worth that making the associates, family and friends aware of the impact of stress upon the recovery of the M.E. sufferer.
The M.E. sufferer is also likely to suffer from anxiety, depression and other forms of mental and emotional stress simply because of what they are going through. It is important to minimise the impact of these negative thoughts and feelings. Once again, a regular prescription of Bach Flower Remedies can help enormously in this. Other approaches to this are to use hypnotherapy or meditation. These techniques lower the brainwave frequency into the alpha/theta region, where stress is relieved. Putting the brain into this state regularly is highly beneficial for everyone, but especially those who are ill.
Rebuilding the Subtle-Energy System
Making sure that all sources of stress for the patient are minimised is the first step to rebuilding their strength. Prolonged stress has invariably locked the body into a long-term fight or flight response mode; the human body was simply not designed to cope with this state for longer than very short periods at a time. The resulting stress hormones are highly detrimental if experienced over long periods and will probably lead to adrenal exhaustion as well as any number of other problems. However, from a holistic point of view, we do not need to worry about such details. All that needs to be done is for the subtle energy flow in the body to be corrected and this is where holistic therapies come into their own.
Kinesiology, ‘energy medicine’ , and energy healing techniques provide us with all the tools we need to correct the subtle energy flow within the body. This process can be broken down as follows: remove blockages from Chi energy flow in the body’s meridians; correct homolateral energy conformation; teach simple exercises to keep the Chi flow healthy between therapy sessions; remove misqualified energy from the patient’s aura; recharge the patient’s system with Chi energy. These processes are discussed in more details in the following paragraphs.
It is an initial priority to check the meridians for blockages. This can be achieved by tapping on the appropriate meridian alarm points and then performing a muscle test [4, p111]. However in the case of M.E. sufferers, experience has shown that most of the meridians will be blocked to start with. It is therefore appropriate to ‘flush’ all the meridians. To do this, each of the meridians is traced by the practitioners hands in the opposite direction to the correct flow, and then retraced in the direction of flow a further three times. This should remove the blockages and restore energy flow to the correct direction. It is important to check that this has been achieved by tapping on the appropriate meridian alarm point and performing another muscle test immediately afterwards. In some cases, the meridian will need to be flushed two or even three times before the blockages have been removed.
In a healthy person, the subtle energies will be in a crossed conformation, showing effective energy cross over from the left side of the brain to the right side of the body and vice versa. For a healthy person, performing a cross-crawl exercise [4, p69] will keep their energies healthy. However, in an M.E. sufferer, their subtle energies are invariably locked into a homolateral conformation. In such a case, the cross-crawl exercise will not re-energise them, but instead further exhaust them. It is not possible to get well while the energies are stuck in a homolateral conformation. It is essential therefore to make their energies cross over again. The exercise which will achieve this is the homo-lateral crossover exercise [4, p233]. It does not need to be performed standing, and can be successfully done when sitting or lying with only small movements. If the patient is actually unable to move at all, it can be done with the practitioner moving the limbs of the sufferer instead. This should be repeated regularly until the energies become stable in the healthy crossed conformation.
The next priority is to show the sufferer some simple techniques for keeping their energies healthy between therapy sessions. The simplest of these is the three thumps exercise [4, p63] Firstly, they must tap on the acupuncture Kidney 27 points, in the indentations at either side of the centre of the collarbone, for a few seconds. This makes all the energy in their meridians flow in the correct direction. Following this, they should tap on the upper breast bone, over the thymus gland; this has the effect of stimulating the immune system. Thirdly they should thump on the Spleen points on the lower rib cage at each side. (These points are found near the bottom of the ribcage directly below the nipples, and are usually sensitive to touch.) Again this has a strongly stimulating effect on the immune system, lifts energy levels and balances blood chemistry. This simple exercise does not take very long and does not require much exertion. The patient should be encouraged to perform this exercise a number of times a day, and once at a minimum. Another common symptom of M.E. is that of brain fuzziness, and difficulty in concentrating. There are also simple exercises which are effective in helping this problem [4, p73-79].
All these things should be checked and rechecked regularly, as to start with the energies are likely to switch back into their unhealthy conformations, and blockages return. As strength returns, the energies will be more likely to remain in the health state, but this will take time.
Once any blockages in the meridian system have been removed, and the energy flowing correctly, the body systems can be recharged using Reiki and/or Seichem, or by Chi Gung healing . The Reiki healer channels the energy from the surroundings through their hands into the body of the receiver, whereas the Chi Gung healer generates Chi within their own body and gives it to the receiver. This energy is essentially life-force energy which will replenish the resources of the M.E. Sufferer. It is impossible to give too much of it, as the receiver only draws as much into their body as they need. In my experience, M.E. sufferers soak it up like a sponge. The energy will then be used by the receiver’s body in the way they need the most. This is extremely beneficial, because even though the stresses have been removed from the sufferer’s system, and their energy pathways corrected, they usually do not have the resources to heal themselves. The Chi provided by Reiki or other energy healing method gives them these resources.
Reiki also have great benefits in addressing the pain and sleep difficulties commonly experienced by M.E. sufferers, as well as relieving physical, emotional and mental stress. When healing the patient, it is important to work on the liver and spleen to help the compromised immune system, and also to work on the back of the head. It is also highly beneficial for the M.E. sufferer to be attuned to channel the Reiki energy themselves. This process not only gives them the ability to give themselves Reiki healing whenever they need, but also the attunement process opens up all their energy pathways and facilitates detoxification. However, this is a matter of choice, and should not be forced upon the patient.
Crystal healing can also be combined with Reiki healing in the form of healing grids , the type of grid being chosen with reference to the patient’s particular symptoms. An additional benefit of using the crystals are that they can be used to drain misqualified energy from the subtle energy fields of the person, before replacing it with healing energy. Certain stones are particularly effective for the M.E. condition . Smoky quartz is also very helpful when dealing with chronic pain. Bloodstone is very helpful for M.E. sufferers because it stimulates the immune system and also facilitates detoxification of the blood. Other very helpful stones are Carnelian and Jet. It is, however, important to check that any stone you propose to use on a patient be compatible with their energies, and this can be done simply using Radiesthesia as described in the following section.
Medical Radiesthesia for Remedy Assessment
So how do you determine which Bach Flower Remedy, crystal or food is compatible with the subject? The most effective method in my experience is that of Medical Radiesthesia . Basically, Medical Radiesthesia is a pendulum dowsing technique which quantitatively assesses the effect of a remedy’s energy field upon that of the subject using a chart and a sample of the person’s hair known as the witness’. A person’s hair is subtly linked to their energy system on a dynamic level by means of the collective unconscious; this means that one sample of their hair will always show their state of well-being even if it is some time since it was cut off. Therefore, using one sample, the practitioner can monitor changes and check prescriptions over a period of time without the subject being present.
When Medical Radiesthesia is used to prescribe remedies, the patient’s witness is placed at one side of the chart and the remedy at the other. The pendulum is started swinging perpendicular to the line joining the two samples, and any angular deflection of the swing noted. Deflection towards the remedy shows that its energy signature is beneficial for the person and deflection away from it shows that its energy is not beneficial for the person. What is more, the degree of deflection shows the extent to which it is beneficial or not. This is a distinct advantage over kinesiology muscle testing which essentially only gives a yes/no answer. Another significant advantage is that once the practitioner has the witness from the person, the tests can be done remotely. The technique does take practice, to develop the practitioner’s radiesthetic faculty, but once achieved, excellent and repeatable results can be easily obtained. It is a good idea to cross-check results occasionally with muscle testing.
The additional advantage of using Medical Radiesthesia is that it removes the subjective input of the practitioner. This is particularly helpful when dealing with the complex causes of M.E.. After having performed a Radiesthetic test, invariably the pattern shown from the remedies is extremely clear in any case. A simplistic Bach Remedy approach for M.E. would merely be to prescribe Hornbeam and Olive because the subject is exhausted. This is very unlikely to succeed though because, as has already been explained, the stress state which ground down the sufferer’s well-being has been prolonged and from varied sources. The exhaustion is the end product, not the cause. This is where the Radiesthesia technique comes into its own. Using Radiesthesia, any preconceived ideas are bypassed, and it immediately identifies the energies which are actually needed, not those you think the patient ought to need.
Following a Medical Radiesthesia consultation for Flower Remedies, a prescription is issued containing a mixture of remedies, and one prescription will last the patient approximately a month. At this time the prescription must be re-assessed to see which remedies are no longer necessary, and whether any new ones are required.
Finding the Flower Remedy Key to Restoring Health
So, while logic would dictate that all the above measures of stress reduction and energy system rebuilding are sufficient to take the M.E. sufferer back to health, this is unfortunately seldom the case. My interpretation of this is that the prolonged stress produces a blockage within the subtle energy of the person, and it is this blockage which results in the abnormal switch and lock into long-term fight or flight response. Until this blockage is removed, the system of the person cannot completely switch back into a normal mode of operation. Or if it does, any return to health will not be long-term. Fortunately, the high frequencies of the Flower Remedies give us the necessary tool to successfully correct such blockages. This final stage is, I believe, the key in returning the M.E. sufferer’s body to a normal mode of operation.
Now, the Bach Flower Remedies work on the level which deals with the current events in a person’s life, and in many situation they are strong enough to clear the mental and emotional blockages. However, in some cases, the block is so entrenched that it does not respond to the Bach Flowers. It is then appropriate to move on to a more powerful essence, which acts on a deeper level, to clear such persistent blockages. The appropriate essences are called the ‘Karmic’ essences . It should be noted that whether or not one believes that issues are held on from one life to another is not really important. The important factor is that the Karmic flower essences work at a higher frequency to the Bach essences, but are related to them: so, for each of the seven Bach Groups, there is a corresponding Karmic essence which is capable of clearing deep-seated patterns which cannot be touched by the Bach Remedies. It is however, important to move through the Bach remedies first for two reasons. Firstly, these may indeed be sufficient, and secondly, looking at the pattern of Bach prescription over a period of time will identify the appropriate Karmic remedy needed to clear the blockage. There is, of course, the additional advantage that the Bach remedies will help reduce the impact of any ongoing stress at the same time. I will illustrate this theory with reference to the following case studies.
My first case study is a lady who is currently 45 years old. She had been suffering from M.E. for about seven years when this study starts. Her symptoms were varied and included the typical weak immune system, crushing exhaustion, sleep disturbances, aches throughout her body, dizziness, chronic infections, etc. She had been unable to work during all that time, and as a single person ended up in severe financial difficulties trying to survive on benefits. Far from being supported by her family, she received practically no help from them, either in practical or emotional terms. Long-standing grudges played constantly on her mind and she was unable to let go and move on.
When she first started on the flower remedies, she had been using a number of holistic therapies for several years. She had however resisted suggestions that she should detox her system. She had had sessions of kinesiology and energy medicine to correct her energies. A significant blockage within her spleen meridian was identified. This had been very hard to clear and it required several sessions using crystals and Reiki before the blockage was removed. Following this, she had chosen to be attuned to Reiki herself, and gave herself daily treatments. However, there was no significant improvement in her health. Unfortunately the financial and family problems were unlikely to change until she could work again, and of course she could not work until she got better.
When her Bach Flower Remedies were assessed monthly using Radiesthesia, a pattern soon became apparent. The situation with her family showed up as Honeysuckle and Willow, denoting resentment and issues in the past. Her stress and worry about her money situation showed up as White Chestnut and Mimulus. Agrimony was characteristic of her personality in that she invariably put a brave face on her problems. Crab Apple showed that she still had a significant amount of detoxing to do and Hornbeam was indicative of her exhaustion. In addition to this was Wild Rose.
Now, the remedies relevant to her family situation and money situation cropped up and then disappeared, then re-appeared again as these issues surfaced and then re-surfaced in her life. This suggested that they were more of a superficial effect, and not the root cause of things. Now, the Crab Apple was consistent in her remedies for five months and then disappeared. This suggested that during this time further detoxing was taking place but after five months this remedy was no longer needed. The Wild Rose however, did not seem to have any obvious relevance to her position as she was desperate to regain her health and strength, but it appeared in the prescription month after month with no sign of being cleared. (I interpreted the Wild Rose to show that although everything she said and did was pointing towards her desire to escape from her M.E., subconsciously she had essentially given up hope that things were ever going to improve, and this was sapping her motivation and energy.) This suggested that she had a significant blockage in the energy of Wild Rose, but that this remedy was not strong enough to clear the blockage. The next step was to go to Valerian Karmic Essence: the Karmic Essence linked to the Bach ‘Lack of Interest’ group of which Wild Rose is member.
She took the Valerian Karmic Essence for three consecutive days once a week for four weeks while continuing to take her Bach prescription. After this time the Valerian was stopped, and the Bach prescription re-assessed. For the first time since the beginning of her treatment, Wild Rose was not in her prescription, confirming that the Karmic remedy had indeed cleared the energy block.
So what effect did this have on her well-being and health? There was an almost immediate change in her demeanour and appearance, upon which both she and other people commented. For the previous seven years she had a very grey appearance, almost as if she were being crushed by some invisible weight. This greyness and the weight suddenly disappeared leaving her with a new vitality and radiance to her face. More significantly, she had a renewed enthusiasm and energy. Although she had been talking about getting back to work for years, it was following the Valerian Essence that she enrolled for two schemes at the Job Centre. In addition to this she became well enough to help friends with babysitting and cooking. Another unexpected improvement which came after introducing the Flower Remedies regime into her life was that her chronically high blood pressure reduced dramatically and to date has not increased again. Obviously there is a way to go before she is back at work full-time, but the transformation in her health and strength since clearing the Wild Rose out of her system with the Valerian Essence has been remarkable.
My second case study is a 37 year old lady, whose Flower Remedy prescription showed quite a complex situation. She had been working in a high-stress career for a number of years, and had suffered from symptoms such as anxiety attacks, insomnia, IBS, headaches; classic signs that her system was trying to show her that this was not the right environment for her well-being. Her health then collapsed totally and she was obliged to resign from her job. With hindsight she admitted that she was totally ill-suited to her chosen career and she should have been doing something completely different. The mismatch between the environment she had imposed on herself and her character was huge, but the strain this produced was totally suppressed; the cause of her M.E. was therefore by no means a mystery.
She followed a rigorous detoxification diet and regime, together with immune system stimulating supplements. She had removed herself from the stressful work environment permanently, and also had hypnotherapy to help clear the stress from her system. This was enhanced with Chi Gung healing during which a huge number of energy blockages were located and cleared. Her health returned to a certain extent, but although she became well enough to take part in some activities, and was no longer confined to her home, she was not well enough to go back to any form of work, and any infection knocked her strength significantly. This situation continued for a number of years with no improvement.
When she came to the flower remedies she had little or no confidence that they would make any difference to her health, but was intrigued to see how what would happen. Her prescription immediately gave some useful information. The remedies which appeared consistently, month after month, were White Chestnut, Red Chestnut, Mimulus, Aspen, Larch, Cerato, Centaury and Wild Oat. Clearly, fears and worries were still causing her an enormous amount of angst and stress. She admitted that her chronic insomnia was usually due to her repetitive thoughts in her over-active brain (White Chestnut), she had been plagued by irrational fears and worries, particularly regarding her loved-ones, her entire life (Red Chestnut, Mimulus, Aspen). The Wild Oat and Larch were interesting because together they confirmed that she had been on the wrong life path all this time, forcing herself to do something to which she was not suited, and consequently not feeling confident and relaxed about herself. The presence of the Centaury, Cerato and the fear-based essences suggested that she had probably ended up in her ill-suiting career because she felt the pressure of other people’s expectations, and had been afraid of taking risks and following her heart. When these observations were discussed with the lady herself, she laughed and admitted that it rang very true, and she wished that she had had her remedies analysed years ago.
After taking the Bach Remedies for several months, she was delighted to report that her irrational fears had abated to such an extent that she was not bothered by them anymore; such fears had been a trial for her whole life. This was confirmed by the fact that the Red Chestnut disappeared from her prescription. This consequently removed a huge source of stress from her and she found herself participating in more daily activities without really noticing it. After four months, she found herself considering starting her own business doing something she had always wanted to do, but had never had the courage to follow up. Not only this but her sleep had improved, and she reported that she had managed to get over a throat infection without it causing a relapse of her condition. This confirms that the remedies removed a significant source of stress for her, and there was an almost immediate corresponding improvement in her physical strength.
The Bach remedies which remained in her prescription despite six months of taking them were Mimulus, Aspen, Cerato and Centaury. This suggested that she had three persistent blockages which needed to be cleared, in the Fear, Uncertainty, and Oversensitivity, groups. As the Karmic Essences are extremely powerful it is best to clear each blockage in turn. Radiesthesia testing showed that her need for the Pink Rose (fear group) was the greatest, followed by White Bluebell (oversensitivity group) and lastly Wild Orchid (uncertainty group), so it was decided to try and clear the blockages in this order.
Following four weeks of taking Pink Rose Karmic Essence for three days at a time, the Aspen had disappeared from her Bach prescription but Mimulus remained. Clearly the blockage needed more treatment with Pink Rose to clear it completely. However, despite this, she reported a significant improvement in her energy and motivation regarding her future career, and started taking concrete measures to put her business plan into action, rather than just thinking about it. The activity level which this required was far beyond the strength she had had prior to taking the Essences. Following a further month with the Pink Rose, the block had cleared, and Mimulus was no longer showing up in her Bach Remedy prescription. At the current time, she is taking the White Bluebell essence, along with her Bach prescription to clear the persistent block in the Oversensitivity group.
Even though she has not yet completed the planned regime of Karmic essences, there has been a dramatic improvement in her strength, health and stamina. After years of not being able to work, she is currently setting up her own business venture, and is feeling energetic and motivated about it.
Although this is a preliminary study, the use of Radiesthesia to prescribe Bach Remedies, and Karmic Essences to clear any persistent blockages, has shown some remarkable results. This would suggest that such an approach to helping M.E. sufferers is well worth investigating in more detail.
Conclusions and Further Work
The people whose cases are discussed here only came to the flower remedies after years of battling with their condition. It would be appropriate to test this approach to treatment with people in the early stages of the condition to see if the term of their illness can be successfully reduced. Logically, the blockages should be easier to clear if they have not been in place for as long a time.
While this study only outlines two cases, the results have been extremely positive; the Flower Remedies have produced significant improvements in the M.E. condition in a short space of time. The use of Bach and Karmic Flower Essences in the treatment of M.E. is therefore worthy of more intense investigation.
 Gordon, R. ‘Are you sleeping in a safe place?’ pp. 22-26, ISBN 0: 951-4017-0X Hall, J. ‘The Crystal Bible,’ ISBN 10: 1-84181-178-0
 Scheffer, M. ‘The Encyclopedia of Bach Flower Therapy,’ ISBN 0-89281-941-3
 Eden, D. ‘Energy Medicine’, ISBN-10: 1585420212
 Chuen, L.K. ‘The Way of Energy’,ISBN 1-85675-020-5
 Raven, H. ‘Crystal Healing,’ pp. 112-115, ISBN 0 9538890-0-9
 Denarius, ‘Pendulum Dowsing and Radiesthesia,’ BSY course material.
 Crystal Herbs ‘Karmic Essences’ information leaflet.
[i] The essences used in this study are produced by Crystal Herbs of Diss, Norfolk, England.